Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. While prevention focuses on taking measures to preclude the development of cancer, cure denotes treatment given to eradicate the disease. Oncology Nursing Society. The rash appears like severe sunburn with redness, swelling, and tenderness. In these cases, radiation is not only given to control pain, but also to stunt the growth of the spinal lesions, reduce their size and impact on surrounding structures, as a means of preventing or delaying devastating effects. See Table 3 for a comparison of the types of external and internal radiation therapy. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/annual-cancer-facts-and-figures/2019/cancer-facts-and-. HPV causes most cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers in women and most oropharyngeal, anal, and penile cancers in men. The goal of screening is early detection to improve overall outcome and survival. Therefore, a core-needle biopsy is more commonly performed. Screenings allow for the early detection of cancers when they are still treatable or potentially curable. Time refers to minimizing the time spent near the source. Additional testing depends on the cancer diagnosis. tidisciplinary team. It may be the only treatment a patient requires, or it may be used in conjunction with other modalities. The tissue sample can be obtained through a few different techniques. Once treatment begins, daily treatments average less than 15 minutes in duration each, and most people can schedule radiation treatments around their regular workday schedules (Nettina, 2019). Core curriculum for oncology nursing. Patients may initially feel powerless or hopeless or may experience grief over life plans that have been altered by the disease. Precision medicine uses the genomic profiling of a patient's tumor to identify genetic mutations that are unique to the tumor (Yarbro et al., 2018). Staging is necessary at the time of diagnosis to determine the extent of disease, to assess prognosis, and to guide proper management. The exact mechanism is unknown but generally occurs 10 to 15 years after the original tumor was treated, is histologically different from the primary tumor, and arises within the previously irradiated tissue (Dracham, Shankar, & Madan, 2018). Newer methods of radiation therapy have helped to minimize damage to healthy tissue; however, treatment is directed to the same area each time, and radiation rays sometimes scatter. When cancer cells collect in one area, they develop into a malignant (or cancerous) tumor. Radiation-induced Secondary Malignancies (RISM). Oncology nurses may be tasked with organizing relevant referrals for patients to other healthcare providers, such as dieticians, social workers, physical therapists, occupational therapists, or speech pathologists. These symptoms may progress to bright red erythema, rash, and desquamation as treatment progresses. Women aged 40 and older should undergo annual mammogram. Additional cellular and genetic features are also increasingly identified to define the final diagnosis further and guide newer treatment options, such as immunotherapy and targeted agents. Pat the area dry and use a soft towel. In general, policies discourage pregnant personnel from caring for patients receiving radiation, and nurses are advised to immediately notify their supervisor if they have become pregnant, or are trying to get pregnant (NCCN, 2019b). Equally as broad as the environment is the scope of practice, responsibilities, and sub-specialization of the oncology nurse.
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